In our study we analyse the way in which such exceptional cases of built inheritance as a baroque castle are perceived by their social environment, i.e. a village community. We analysed this relationship by identifying the topoi (topics) of positive and negative discourses related to the castle, then we tried to identify the local social groups behind the different discourses. We have come to the conclusion that the castle does not only represent a building for the local community, but a combination of the building itself, of its owners and the related social and economic transactions. Due to these aspects of built heritage, their perception are determined by different motivations: besides recognising the architectural value of this building, emotional attitudes toward its owners, as well as interest/opposing interests in the (real or suspected) status endeavours of its owners within the community and in economic activities related to the building. We used qualitative methods for data collection.

Keywords: built heritage, castle, social environment

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Carrying on the line of thought of his earlier publications in Erdélyi Társadalom, the author continues the analysis of the long term transformation of Western masculinities. First, it is concentrated on the opposition between knightly and clerical masculinities, pointing out that the hegemonic knightly patterns are internalized by a partial disposition drill, while the counter-hegemonic clerical forms by a total disposition drill. Then, focussing on the dichotomy between the predatory knight and the knight, the dispositional universe of hegemonic masculinity is intended to be enlarged. It is emphasised that the archaic habitus-centre is built upon by permanently changing and relationally conditioned newer and newer dispositional layers. Then, the counter-hegemonic dispositional universe of the clerigy is put under scrutiny: the distinctions and sub-variations between, on the one hand, the priest and the monk, and, on the other, the different religious orders are outlined. Finally, it is argued that there are several transitory dispositional figurations between the two ideal-types, i.e. the borders between the knightly and clerical masculinities are blurred. To put it differently, by the end of the Middle Ages hybrid masculine habituses are being formed.

Keywords: Middle Ages, hegemonic and counter-hegemonic masculinities, knights, clerics, priest, monk, hybrid habitus

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Outcome of the farming method in the last centuries is that the landscape of the surrounding environment became as we see it today in the Gheorgheni (Gyergyó)-basin, Harghita county, Romania. In connection with the socio-ecological sustainability of the region, the local community awareness is crucial in landscape sustainability of farming, here in particular livestock farming mainly sheep, goat and cattle breeding and processing of animal products. Based on conclusions of the Gyergyó-basin field research – which was conducted in the summer of 2015 – through the whole process of milk production, -processing and -sales we present the observable relationship between people and landscape. The results came out with a unique dichotomy. From one side they show the interdependence of landscape and society, since many of them make a living from the sustainable farming. In addition to food production these people also maintain their surroundings thus preventing the degradation of the landscape and natural environment and with it preserving knowledge, traditions, that define the identity of the rural population, and the possibility of diverse land use. The other side of the results we found that many factors (demographic features, entrepreneurial culture, conflicts of interest, willingness to cooperate, labour force, financial support provided by EU, modernization etc.) are blocking the way for farmers to strengthen their awareness concerning the ecological land use. Specifying these factors are we trying to call attention to the challenges in the future of Gheorgheni (Gyergyó)-basin.

Keywords: landscape, ecologic economy, Gheorgheni (Gyergyó) basin

Full text (in Hungarian)

Elderly caregivers and social workers as professional helpers are highly vulnerable to burnout syndrome, chronic job stress, emotional and physical exhaustion due to failure to cope with stress, as well as depersonalization, cynicism and declining performance (Maslach, 2003). During our research we targeted this occupational group. The study, which is based on the first author’s, a HR student’s thesis defended in 2015, investigates an international non-profit organizational working group from Bihor county, Romania, specialized in taking care of elderly, concerning burnout and the risks of its onset.

In the study, 34 members of the working group consisting of 37 members altogether, took part. It was carried out in two phases. The first step consisted in the completion of a survey related to characteristics of burnout, self-esteem, mechanisms of stress management, workplace anxiety, satisfaction with life and workaholism in the studied population. This was followed by a series of interviews conducted by using the technique of semi-structured interviews, in which 5 employees of the organisation participated.

The findings show that in the case of the studied employees there is no burnout syndrome, the value of life satisfaction is high, while workplace anxiety is low. It is worth noticing that the value of selfesteem (in the case of 90% of the group members) is low and work overload is present in 30% of the members. During the interviews, we were given some valuable suggestions concerning the introduction of feasible burnout prevention policies within the organization.

Keywords: burnout, prevention, elderly caregivers, social workers

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The text deals with the creative industries and IT sector in the North -Western part of Transylvania, Romania in order to describe the social-demographic profile of entrepreneurs. The empirical base is represented by a questionnaire-based survey carried out in the region and the in-depth analysis of fourteen enterprises and their owners. The results show that the entrepreneurs engaged in local creative industries and IT possess marketable special knowledge and skills employed in special market niches.

Keywords: economy, enterprises, creative industries, IT, profiles, Romania

Full text (in Hungarian)

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