Outcome of the farming method in the last centuries is that the landscape of the surrounding environment became as we see it today in the Gheorgheni (Gyergyó)-basin, Harghita county, Romania. In connection with the socio-ecological sustainability of the region, the local community awareness is crucial in landscape sustainability of farming, here in particular livestock farming mainly sheep, goat and cattle breeding and processing of animal products. Based on conclusions of the Gyergyó-basin field research – which was conducted in the summer of 2015 – through the whole process of milk production, -processing and -sales we present the observable relationship between people and landscape. The results came out with a unique dichotomy. From one side they show the interdependence of landscape and society, since many of them make a living from the sustainable farming. In addition to food production these people also maintain their surroundings thus preventing the degradation of the landscape and natural environment and with it preserving knowledge, traditions, that define the identity of the rural population, and the possibility of diverse land use. The other side of the results we found that many factors (demographic features, entrepreneurial culture, conflicts of interest, willingness to cooperate, labour force, financial support provided by EU, modernization etc.) are blocking the way for farmers to strengthen their awareness concerning the ecological land use. Specifying these factors are we trying to call attention to the challenges in the future of Gheorgheni (Gyergyó)-basin.

Keywords: landscape, ecologic economy, Gheorgheni (Gyergyó) basin

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