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Citizenship and civic participation are spatially and temporally changing concepts, therefore, their research remains constantly relevant. The question of how 17–18-year-old pupils see their “place” in society and their role in political processes, is of high importance, as they are the future voters. The main objective of the paper is to find out the kinds of categories that can be distinguished in terms of civic participation among the youth on the threshold of adulthood and what are the specificities of these categories. Furthermore, I try to identify the dimensions along which young people interpret the concept of “citizen” and what are the qualities that they consider important to acknowledge someone as a “good citizen”. In this section, my aim is to highlight the influencing factors and their strengths. The results show that four types of pupils are distinguished in terms of participation: those who “accumulate” activities, the “traditionals”, the protesters, and the passive ones. At the same time, based on the responses, one can see that the characteristics of an ideal citizen are organized into three factors: orientation and activity, social, and responsibility. Their activities and ideas are greatly influenced by the environment and the behavioral patterns they encounter and follow. The study presents the results of a survey based on questionnaire, which is representative of the Hungarian 11th and 12th grade pupils of eight large cities in Transylvania.

Keywords: civic participation, ideal citizen, youth

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The study briefly presents the major changes that have taken place in the Romanian health care system in recent decades, as well as the strategies and legislative reforms that shaped these transformations. We examine time series data with primary relevance for the public health situation in the country. First, we compare national data with those from the other EU countries, then – with a special focus on Transylvania – we will highlight the regional differences within the country.

Keywords: health services, healthcare reforms, regional disparities, causes of death, Transylvania – Romania

Full text (in Hungarian)

In the context of modern industrial capitalism and the expansion of wage labor, the consumption of alcohol has gradually increased since the 18th century. This growth was present, both in Eastern and Western Europe, also in restructured state-socialist systems after the World War II, like in Romania. The present study analyzes the dynamics of alcohol consumption in the state-socialist period, using as a starting point the alcohol policies of that period. Three phases can be distinguished: alcohol, as considered a stable state income (due to increasing consumption), expanding access as an indicator of prosperity (increasing consumption), the third phase is on restraining consumption opportunities, consequently consumption too.

Keywords: social history, alcohol consumption, lifestyle, communism, Romania

Full text (in Hungarian)

We examined two main questions in our paper, on the one hand, to find out how the legal regulations on working time and rest time have changed in Hungary and Romania in the last 3 decades, and on the other hand, to find out how the 20-29 age group relates to working time, overtime. In both countries, pre-transition labour codes have been replaced, bringing a new perspective to these countries. On the one hand, pre-regime change work organization models were partially or completely transformed, adapting to a new kind of capitalist market perception. Related to the previous two effects is the fact that both countries applied for membership in the European Union, which meant the incorporation of EU standards into national law and compliance with EU minimum standards. These EU effects have largely affected labour law and working time. In addition to the above, it is necessary to look not only at legal and economic changes, but also at social changes, shifts towards flexible legal relations and the effects of digitalisation. In the questionnaire, we asked young people (aged 20-29) with a degree in economics or law in Romania and Hungary, or who are still pursuing such studies, about how working time and overtime are perceived. As a research question, we formulated whether there is a difference or similarity between the opinions of young people living in Romania or Hungary in terms of working hours, overtime, and esteem from the employer. We hypothesize that this young age group, regardless of place of residence, typically has a similar view of working time and the labour market, but work experience has an influential power on the issue of working time.

Keywords: labour law, working time, regime change, challenges

Full text (in Hungarian)

After the regime change in Romania significant changes in the structure of the population can also be observed, one aspect of which is aging. Our research examines the Romanian aspects of the silver economy on the example of Érmellék micro region. The studied North Bihor area is a disadvantaged micro-region where the social and economic changes of the last 30 years have not brought an easier life. These social changes can be seen in ethnic change, aging, the feminization of aging, and low educational attainment. According to economic indicators, people living here are characterized by low income and commuting lifestyle for working purposes. Accession to the European Union is mostly reflected in the increase in the number of border crossings points and cross-border labor force migration in this region. Thus, our research concerns the examination of the situation of the aging and elderly generation in Érmellék along the measures and services of the silver economy. After defining the concept of the silver economy and presenting the dimensions of the Active Aging Index, an analysis of the empirical data follows. Our study interprets the silver economy as a set of economic opportunities that address both the public and consumer expenditures associated with an aging population and the specific needs of the population over 50 years. During the data processing, through qualitative approach of the elderly population quality of life, we sought the answer to the question of the extent to which the silver economy, or some of its dimensions, can be accessed in Érmellék.

In our study, we integrated the analysis of information from focus group interviews, professional and in-depth interviews in the framework of the exploratory research into the dimensions provided by the Active Aging Index. Along with the applied analytical logic, the presentation of the individual dimensions was supplemented with the processing of qualitative empirical material in addition to the secondary data, so we could get to know the conditions of active aging in Érmellék and the possibilities of the regional silver economy.

Keywords: silver economy, active aging, quality of life of the elderly, social care, employment of the elderly, social participation of the elderly

Full text (in Hungarian)

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