The study examines the social-economical context of the appearance of entrepreneurs after 1989 in two localities of the Szeklerland: Joseni (Gyergyóalfalu) in Harghita County and Ilieni (Illyefalva) in Covasna County. It starts by analyzing those local economic resourses that can influence regional differences in the number and structure of ventures. Following that, it examines the sociocultural background of the spreading of entrepreneurial attitude, then outlines the types of entrepreneurs.
One of the essential messages of the paper is that the degree of entrepreneurial propensity is similar in spite of different natural resources and economic environment, which calls the attention on the cultural determination of the phenomenon. The history of the formation and development of ventures on the other hand strongly depends on the available resources and the existing economic conditions.

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