In the previous chapters published in “Erdélyi Társadalom”, I have studied the long-term transformation of Western masculinities between the Middle Ages and the 16th century. In this chapter, it is intended to confirm the Eliasian thesis according to which a new form of social integration based on psychological sensitivity emerges in Early Modernity. First, it is concentrated on the historically conditioned internal and external factors that explain the rise of an exceptionally successful modern economy and bourgeois society. Next, after comparing the differences and similarities between the medieval thick cities and the Dutch cities in the Golden Age, the activities of the members of the painters’ guilds are put under scrutiny. Finally, the characteristics of the transformation of hegemonic masculine dispositional patterns from the Middle Ages until the end of the 17th century are outlined. It is emphasised that a new, plural hegemonic masculine habitus is crystallised in this period.

Keywords: Dutch Republic, plural masculine habitus, 17th century, painters, cities

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