Modern social sciences are in constant search, especially today when globalization and networking, the crisis of the world system, fundamentally change the medium – society(s) they are seeking. New challenges, which involve a new conceptual system and theory, as well as renewed research dynamics, that is, practice, are also affected by political developments. Populist politics now embraces the two concepts, the facts and the truth, of the (social) sciences. I have outlined three themes that need to be renewed: media sociology (a new mix of public and private sectors, networking), gender studies (unfair discrediting attempts) and multiculturalism (which may be like ideology dead but de facto very much exists). All three themes have been at the center of criticism, and are questionable whether or not the social sciences will be able to answer the challenges that emerge on these topics.

Keywords: globalization, networking, online media, gender studies, multiculturalism.

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Carrying on the line of thought of his earlier publications in Erdélyi Társadalom, the author focuses, actually, on masculinity patterns crystallized in the medieval city. He identifies guild members as par excellence agents of medieval urban masculinity. In the first sub-chapter, in order to denote this particularly complex urban social setting, the term thick city is introduced; then, the emergence of medieval cities is explained on the basis of some interdependent global and macro-structural components of key importance. In the second sub-chapter, the main facts concerning guilds, i.e. associations of merchants and artisans, generally bound by oath, intended to promote the interests of its members, are summed up. The third sub-chapter concentrates on structural homologies and differences between urban masculinity on the one hand, and knightly and clerical masculinities, on the other. It is specified that the habitus and practice of urban citizens are closer to clerics than to knights, because merchants, craftsmen and artisans are able to control their violent impulses, and organise their lives on the bases of rationality, professionalism, and disciplined work. According to the fourth sub-chapter, the spread of clerical masculinity might be interpreted as a result of habitus transfer, mediated by the structural conditions of the thick city. Finally, three habitus types are distinguished: the situationally conditioned plural habitus of the knight, the structurally conditioned homogeneous habitus of the clerics, and the relationally conditioned homogeneous habitus of the urban citizen.

Keywords: Middle Ages, masculinities, city, guilds, habituses

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The present study is based on a questionnaire (N=465) carried out in the spring of 2015 in Érmellék, a Hungarian subregion in Romania. The aim of the exploratory research was to learn about the intentions for secondary education of minority and double minority Hungarian and Hungarian Roma primary school children, and to investigate the factors shaping their decision for further education. No previous research investigating correlations between the region’s social ecology, family background and sociocultural factors in the light of further education has been carried out in the area. The present study introduces the characteristics and intentions for further education of seventh and eighth grade Hungarian Roma children (N=85). The paper provides a closer understanding of the change of education level following primary education and the factors influencing intensions for this change. The empirical research sheds light on students’ school paths, which foreshadow their further education paths. The intended educational qualifications provide an outline of the job market situation and the attainable level of social status.

Keywords: Érmellék, double minority, Roma, factors influencing further education, intentions for further education, odds ratio in education

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The article presents some results of the MigRom – The immigration of Romanian Roma to Western Europe: Causes, effects and future engagements strategies, a project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme under the call on ’Dealing with diversity and cohesion: the case of the Roma in the European Union’ (GA319901). The Romanian team did research in origin localities of the Romanian Roma migrants, focusing on mobility patterns, networks, remittances and effects of migration on home communities.

Keywords: Roma migration, home communities, mobility patterns, networks, remittances, local development

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In our paper we analyse the special characteristics of non-governmental organisations from Szeklerland dealing with Roma issues, surveying how and to what extent they cover this field, the resources they have, the activities they perform, the types of organisations that can be differentiated and to what extent these characteristics differ from national level data. Employing the quantitative data of the SocioRoMap research program, we may draw the conclusion that while organizational density is relatively high, the majority of organisations are operated not by Roma, but by Hungarians and among Roma organisations there is none of national significance. As a result of this characteristic, the organisations of this region are weakly integrated into the national network of Roma organisations and they rather have access to the territorial work division related to Roma projects as “partner organisations” than project promoters. This disadvantageous situation – due to specific reasons – is not reflected in the material situation of these organisations, yet it results in a more difficult access to resources available for Roma public policies and in a more pronounced exclusion of the Roma population from the definition of problems and priorities related to them, as well from the material advantages entailed by the implementation of Roma projects. Our analysis is descriptive in its nature and its aim is to aid the planning of Roma public policies in Szeklerland.

Keywords: Roma civil society, Roma non-governmental organization, Roma project, Szeklerland

Full text (in Hungarian)

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